The End of History? Limits and outcomes of democracy

The End of History? Limits and outcomes of democracy

Is modern democracy in its average American-European way a final step of social and political evolution? Political class of the West is confident of it. American philosopher Francis Fukuyama put this thesis as the title of his famous book. He concluded that “the twin crises of authoritarianism and socialist central planning have left only one competitor standing in the ring as an ideology of potentially universal validity: liberal democracy”.


In the 90’s of the 20th century, attempts to dispute such views appeared to be marginal. However, the aggravating migration crisis in Europe and the administration crisis in the US show once again that liberal model is not a perfectly balanced construction that needs no further advance. These days, its most canonical adherents also refuse to admit that the crisis is of systemic nature. They see the essence of the problem in prone to populism and authoritarian politicians who disrupt democratic institutions.


Meanwhile, the situation concerning migrants was created not by a retreat from the liberal theory and practice, but by excessive dedication to them contrary to real capabilities of the European Union and its member-states. Discrepancy between ideology and the existing social and political model is undeniably indicative of a crisis. The same goes for the growing breakaway of the U.S. political class from concerns, values and aspiration of the rest of the nation, which has been expressed as the inability of the elite to respect the legit choice of American electors, i.e. Donald Trump and his political agenda.


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